Nepal National Micronutrient Status Survey 2016

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Nepal National Micronutrient Status Survey 2016: The Nepal National Micronutrient Status Survey (NNMSS) assessed micronutrient status among representative populations in Nepal, including specifically the status of vitamins A, iron, folic acid, iodine, zinc and the condition of anemia. To assess nutritional status and understand factors related to micronutrient status and anemia, the survey also collected information on anthropometry, infectious diseases (malaria, Soil Transmitted Helminths (STH), H. pylori, visceral leishmaniosis), blood disorders, and markers of inflammation. Additionally, the survey provided information on process and outcome indicators of priority for national supplementation and fortification interventions, and other key nutrition interventions in the country.

Nepal National Micronutrient Status Survey 2016

  • Breastfeeding is nearly universal in the country and two-thirds of the children (67 percent) were breastfed within one hour of birth.
  • Almost eight in ten children (6-8 months of age) received timely introduction of complementary foods.
  • Among children 6-23 months, 46 percent received the minimum dietary diversity (at least four food groups out of seven recommended food groups)
  • Among children 6-59 months, caregivers reported over nine in ten (92 percent) had received a vitamin A capsule during the last mass distribution campaign,
  • Among children 6-59 months, one in five children (20 percent) had H. pylori infection.
  • Nationally 14 percent of adolescent boys had H. pylori infection.
  • A total of 16 percent of non-pregnant adolescent girls had H. pylori infection.
  • Overall, 40 percent non-pregnant women 15-49 years had H. pylori infection.
  • Children 6-59 months and non-pregnant women of 15-49 years were tested for visceral leishmaniasis using a rapid test kit. Among 1649 children, three (0.1 percent); and among 2136 non-pregnant women, seven (0.4 percent) tested positive for infection.
  • Overall, 12 percent of children 6-59 months had any worm infestation; with 11 percent having light intensity of ascaris lumbricoides and one percent each having light intensity of trichuris trichura and hook worm.
  • Overall, 19 percent of non-pregnant women 15-49 years had any worm infestation; with 18 percent having light intensity of ascaris lumbricoides, 1 percent having light intensity of trichuris trichura and 0.9 percent having light intensity of hookworm.
  • Two percent of children (6-59 months) were carriers for alpha-thalassemia, five percent had beta-thalassemia, less than one percent were carriers for sickle cell, or had sickle cell trait (HbAS) and around one percent had Hemoglobin E. A total of 18 percent were affected by Glucose-6-phosphate Dehydrogenate (G6PD) deficiency.
  • Less than one percent of non-pregnant women 15-49 years were carriers for alphathalassemia, three percent had beta-thalassemia, less than one percent were carriers for sickle cell or had sickle cell trait (HbAS) and two percent had Hemoglobin E. A total of 14 percent were affected by G6PD deficiency.
  • Nationally, 35 percent of children 6-59 months suffer from stunting, 29 percent underweight and 11 percent wasting.
  • Overall, almost one-third (32 percent) of adolescent boys 10-19 years suffered from
  • Overall 23 percent boys suffered from wasting (BMIZ<-2z), five percent from overweight (BMIZ>1z) and one percent from obesity (BMIZ>2z).
  • Overall, almost one third (32 percent) of the non-pregnant adolescent girls 10-19 years suffered from stunting.
  • Fourteen percent of adolescent girls suffered from wasting (BMIZ<-2z).
  • Overall four percent of adolescent girls had overweight (BMIZ>1z) and less than one percent (0.7 percent) had obesity (BMIZ>2z).
  • A total of 11 percent of non-pregnant women 15-49 years were shorter than 145 cm.
  • Overall, 15 percent of women suffer from thinness or underweight (BMI30.0 kg/m2), 19 percent from overweight (BMI between 25.0-29.9 kg/m2) and five percent from obesity (BMI>30.0 kg/m2).
  • Overall, 19 percent of children 6-59 months had anemia with 14 percent mild anemia and five percent moderate anemia.
  • Among the total children, almost three in ten (28 percent) had iron deficiency and 11 percent had iron deficiency anemia.
  • Among adolescent boys, around one in ten (11 percent) had anemia with nine percent mild anemia and two percent moderate anemia.
  • Around two in ten (21 percent) of non-pregnant adolescent girls 10-19 years had anemia with 14 percent mild anemia and six percent moderate anemia.
  • Two in ten (20 percent) non-pregnant women 15-49 years had anemia with 13 percent mild anemia and seven percent moderate anemia.
  • Among pregnant women (15-49 years) 27 percent had anemia, 14 percent had iron deficiency and five percent had iron deficiency anemia.
  • A total of four percent of children 6-59 months were vitamin A deficient with MRDR >0.060.
  • A total of three percent of non-pregnant women 15-49 years had Vitamin A deficiency.
  • Overall, two in ten (21 percent) children 6-59 months were zinc deficient.
  • Overall, a quarter of non-pregnant women (24 percent) 15-49 years had zinc deficiency.
  • Among children 6-59 months only one percent suffered from folate deficiency.
  • About six percent of non-pregnant adolescent girls 10-19 years had RBC folate deficiency.
  • About five percent of non-pregnant women 15-49 years had RBC folate deficiency.
  • Overall, the mUIC of children 6-9 years was 314.1 µg/L.
  • Approximately nine in ten households (88 percent) used refined salt, 12 percent used crystal salt and four percent used crushed salt for cooking. Among the households who used crystal salt nearly half (46 percent) reported washing the salt.
  • Almost six in ten households grow wheat and locally mill them, while 45 percent purchase Maida flour and 43 percent purchase Atta flour.

Ministry of Health and Population, Nepal; New ERA; UNICEF; EU; USAID; and CDC. 2018. Nepal National Micronutrient Status Survey, 2016. Kathmandu, Nepal: Ministry of Health and Population, Nepal.

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